Archive for the 'Project Management Services' category

Stock Portfolio Management

Stock Portfolio Management A stock portfolio management refers to the management of investment decisions for a stock portfolio and it is usually performed by stock management professional due to its complex nature. The stock portfolio managers are the experts in the field of stocks and well suited for making decisions for those who want to manage their own investment.

Stock Portfolio Management Softwares

There are various stock management softwares available in the market that assists in process of stock management. There programs are well designed to provide assistance for those investors who are good with numbers and stocks.

Benefits of Stock Portfolio Management Softwares

· Assists in evaluation of various stocks

· Before investing, these programs educate a person about tracking the history of stocks

· Recommendations based on personal information

· Well designed to help the investor who can manage his own stock portfolio

· Some programs can do monthly analysis of stocks for a monthly fee

· Some programs can be set to buy and sell certain stocks automatically on the basis of preset conditions when the stocks reach certain levels on the stock market.

· Saves time for knowledgeable investors for managing the stock portfolios.

In addition to providing software for investor for managing his/her stock holdings, there are various contacts that are available online for offering expert advice in managing an individual’s stock shares.

The portfolio for large number of investors are managed by stock management company who have stock portfolio managers that will make the decisions for protecting the person’s initial investment and ensures its growth for good returns in future.

The stock portfolio management company handles the IRA accounts for an employer that provides options to the stock portfolio managers regarding the investment limit and certain percentage of money for investment in various kinds of stocks.

The employee who has the stock account with the company is free to ask for any modifications by submitting the written request to the company at any time. The investment firm keeps the investors away from suffering huge losses by issuing various useful recommendations from time to time. As the market dynamics changes constantly so it is not possible to avoid the losses all the time, however the amount of loss can be kept to minimum by taking the services of stock portfolio managers.

The companies owned by stockholders forms an important component of the free enterprise system and offer advantages to many people. These stockholders are eligible to take their stand on company policy decisions by the way of voting and they also share the profits or losses earned by the company. The stockholders are basically wealthy people who can bear heavy losses if any incurred during the financial crisis.

The investment in stocks is opened to anyone who would like to invest in stocks. The proper management of investment in stocks can allow the investors to receive dividends on the investment and enjoy the profits of a company. In fact, there are many companies that provide stock shares to their employees on retirement as part of their savings.

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Product Portfolio Management

The product portfolio management involves grouping of major products that are developed and sold by businesses into (logical) portfolios. These products are organized according to major line-of-business or business segment.

The management team actively manages the product portfolios by taking decisions regarding the development of new products, modifying existing products or discontinue any other products. The addition of new products helps in diversifying the investments and investment risks.

Objectives of Product Portfolio Management

Product Portfolio Management There are various methods adopted by firms for implementing the product portfolio management; however there are some common goals that every company tries to achieve by product portfolio management.

Value Maximization

The product portfolio management involves allocation of resources for maximizing the value of the portfolio through a number of key objectives like ROI, profitability, and acceptable risk. A variety of procedures are used for achieving this objective of value maximization that ranges from financial procedures to scoring models.

Balance

Product portfolio management involves achievement of desired balance of projects by considering various parameters.

· Risk versus return

· Short-term versus long-term

· Business arenas and technologies

In order to reveal balance, there are various methods used such as bubble diagrams, histograms and pie charts.

Business Strategy Alignment

The portfolio of projects should reflect product innovation strategy of the organization and that the expenditures and spending should be in line with strategic priorities of the organization.

There are three main approaches used for alignment of business strategy.

· Top-down (strategic buckets)

· Bottom-up (effective gate keeping and decision criteria)

· Top-down and bottom-up (strategic check)

Pipeline Balance

In order to achieve the proper balance between the demands of various projects in pipeline and available resources, the pipeline balance and management is done in the product portfolio management. The objective is to avoid pipeline gridlock caused by the presence of many projects with little resources at any given time.

Approaches for pipeline management

· Rank ordered priority list

· Resource supply and demand assessment

Sufficiency

Investors should ensure that revenue (or profit) targets that are formulated during the product innovation strategy should be achievable and feasible. It is done by conducting a financial analysis of potential future value of pipeline.

Challenges of Product Portfolio Management

There are various challenges that confront product portfolio management that reflects the weaknesses in the strategy of product portfolio management.

· Projects are not low value to the business

· Product Portfolio has a poor balance

· Resource breakdown not as per the product innovation strategy

· Inefficiency in ranking and prioritizing projects

· Poor balance between the resources available and number of projects

· Projects not aligned with the business strategy

Advantages of Product Portfolio Management

With proper implementation of the Product portfolio management, organisation can reap huge benefits in the long run.

· Building a strong link between project selection and business strategy

· Achieving efficient and effective allocation of scarce resources

· Communicating priorities

· Achieving balance

· Maximizing the return on various product innovation investments

· Enabling objective project selection

· Achieving focus in activities

· Maintaining the competitive position of organisation

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Role of Project Portfolio Management

Role of Project Portfolio Management Project Management plays a major role in planning and successful implementation of the strategy. It happens that strategy fails sometimes due to the presence of big gap between strategy and execution. Some of the common mistakes found in various companies are lack of involvement, discipline and follow up. With correct project portfolio management process in place, companies can take care of all these problems.

A project portfolio is managed by the project portfolio manager who looks for various ways that led to the improvement in the return on investment. A project portfolio manager has to be specialist in its field and he should constantly monitor and evaluate the portfolio with the passage of time to ensure that portfolio is giving high returns at low risks.

Every organization should have a project portfolio manager to take care of the portfolio management. A portfolio manager does the regular analysis and assessment of portfolio performances in terms of risk and returns over a period of time. Portfolio Management is goal-driven and target oriented task and there are inherent risks involved in the managing a portfolio.

Some of the major tasks involved with Portfolio Management include Matching investments to objectives, balancing risk against performance, taking decisions about investment mix and policy and allocating assets for individuals and institution.

Roles of Project Portfolio Management

· Determination of a viable project mix that meets the target of the organization

· Ensuring a mix of projects that balance various factors such as research versus development, short term versus long term, risk versus reward, etc

· Regular monitoring of the planning and execution of the optimal selected projects

· Evaluating the performance of portfolio and various ways for improving it

· Analysing the recent opportunity against the existing portfolio

· Comparing the project execution capacity of the organisation

· Providing recommendations to decision makers at every level of the process management

There has been increasing awareness among the organizations regarding the improvement of project portfolio management process for making it more efficient. In many companies the improvement of project portfolio has become part of the organizational learning process.

Project portfolio can be improved by following the below mentioned steps.

· Collecting and reporting the initial portfolio information

· Establishing the goals of portfolio

· Developing the resource and asset portfolios

· Linking project goals, resource and asset portfolios

· Performing an initial assessment

· Determining the multi-project strategic resource of the organization

· Prioritizing the project portfolio as per the accepted criteria and available information

· Assessing the portfolio balance

· Developing the recommendations for enhancing the ROI (Return of the Investment)

· Facilitating the Governance Board meeting

· Communicate the relevant information to various departments

The proper project portfolio management works wonders for the growth and development of the organisation. The selection of the right methods for choosing the right projects is a big challenge and portfolio management enables the organisation to proactively take all the required measures that yield high returns at a given level of risk.

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Portfolio Management Services (PMS)

Portfolio management services (PMS) are the professional services provided by portfolio managers to help their clients in managing their portfolio efficiently and taking required decisions swiftly. Portfolio managers consider the risk preferences and personal investment goals of their clients and manage their mutual funds, stocks and bonds.

There are many advantages of choosing Portfolio Management Services (PMS) as an alternative to Mutual Funds Services. It is because the portfolio managers provide better services than the product services offered by mutual funds managers.

PMS Services offered by Portfolio Managers

Portfolio Management Services (PMS) Personal Relationship Manager: The portfolio manager acts as a personal relationship manager that enables the client to interact with the fund manager at any given point of time depending on his preference.

Monthly Discussion: Clients can discuss any concerns or issues related to the money or savings with their appointed portfolio manager on monthly basis. The client can interact and discuss regarding any major changes related to the investment strategies and asset allocation.

Asset Allocation: Portfolio Manager assists in the allocation of assets or savings of clients by advising regarding the investments in stocks, bonds or equity funds. The Asset allocation plan is customised as per the risk preference and goals of the clients. This plan is designed by doing the detailed analysis and evaluation of the client’s risk taking capacity, savings pattern, and investment goals.

Timing: Portfolio managers help the clients in taking timely decisions and thereby preserving their money on time. Portfolio management service assists in the allocating of money at precise time in suitable saving plan. Thus, portfolio managers offer their professional and proficient advice to the clients and suggest when the money should be invested in equities or bonds and when it should be taken out from a particular saving plan. Portfolio managers give their recommendations after analysing the market thoroughly. They ask the clients to withdraw their money from market in times big risk in stock market and prevents heavy losses.

Flexibility: Portfolio managers have detailed knowledge of the market conditions and they are the experts of field. They can plan the savings of the client according to his preferences and requirements. It is possible that portfolio managers can invest the client’s money according to his preference as they are specialists of the market. Thus, clients can provide flexibility to the portfolio managers to manage their investment with complete efficiency and effectiveness.

The role of portfolio managers differs from mutual funds services as they are not required to comply with any strict rules regarding making investment of fixed amount of money in a specific mode of investment.

Administration handling: Portfolio management service (PMS) involves handing and care of all type of administrative work by the portfolio managers such as opening a new bank account or taking financial settlement, etc.

Online portfolio Access: Clients can check his portfolio details frequently by accessing the portfolio details online. With Portfolio management service (PMS), clients receive a User-ID and Password for online access to portfolio details.

Tax Management: Portfolio management service (PMS) assists in managing tax of the clients on the basis of detailed statement of the transactions in their portfolio.

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Phases of Portfolio Management

Portfolio Management comprises of many activities that are targeted at optimizing the investment of client’s funds. There are basically five phases in the portfolio management and each of these phases makes up an integral part of the Portfolio Management and the success of it depends on the effectiveness in implementing these phases.

Security Analysis:

Phases of Portfolio Management There are many types of securities available in the market including equity shares, preference shares, debentures and bonds. Apart from it, there are many new securities that are issued by companies such as Convertible debentures, Deep Discount bonds, floating rate bonds, flexi bonds, zero coupon bonds, global depository receipts, etc.

It forms the initial phase of the portfolio management process and involves the evaluation and analysis of risk return features of individual securities. The basic approach for investing in securities is to sell the overpriced securities and purchase underpriced securities. The security analysis comprises of Fundamental Analysis and technical Analysis.

Portfolio Analysis:

A portfolio refers to a group of securities that are kept together as an investment. Investors make investment in various securities to diversify the investment to make it risk averse. A large number of portfolios can be created by using the securities from desired set of securities obtained from initial phase of security analysis.

By selecting the different sets of securities and varying the amount of investments in each security, various portfolios are designed. After identifying the range of possible portfolios, the risk-return characteristics are measured and expressed quantitatively. It involves the mathematically calculation of return and risk of each portfolio.

Portfolio Selection

During this phase, portfolio is selected on the basis of input from previous phase Portfolio Analysis. The main target of the portfolio selection is to build a portfolio that offer highest returns at a given risk. The portfolios that yield good returns at a level of risk are called as efficient portfolios. The set of efficient portfolios is formed and from this set of efficient portfolios, the optimal portfolio is chosen for investment.

The optimal portfolio is determined in an objective and disciplined way by using the analytical tools and conceptual framework provided by Markowitz’s portfolio theory.

Portfolio Revision

After selecting the optimal portfolio, investor is required to monitor it constantly to ensure that the portfolio remains optimal with passage of time. Due to dynamic changes in the economy and financial markets, the attractive securities may cease to provide profitable returns. These market changes result in new securities that promises high returns at low risks.

In such conditions, investor needs to do portfolio revision by buying new securities and selling the existing securities. As a result of portfolio revision, the mix and proportion of securities in the portfolio changes.

Portfolio Evaluation

This phase involves the regular analysis and assessment of portfolio performances in terms of risk and returns over a period of time. During this phase, the returns are measured quantitatively along with risk born over a period of time by a portfolio. The performance of the portfolio is compared with the objective norms. Moreover, this procedure assists in identifying the weaknesses in the investment processes.

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Personal Portfolio Management

A personal portfolio management comprises of the management of all the investments and securities held by an investor. The procedure of managing all the securities and assets is very complicated and thus, many big investors take the services of portfolio managers that assist in managing their portfolios. The personal portfolio managers utilize their skills and market knowledge and take help of portfolio management softwares for managing the investor’s portfolio.

Important concepts that are of primary importance in personal portfolio management are as mentioned below.

Personal Portfolio Management · Average return and risk by asset class

· How risk is measured

· Risk associated with different investments

· Understanding your ‘risk tolerance’

· Relationship between risk and return

· Accounting for fees in portfolio planning

· Correlations in returns between assets

· Portfolio diversification

· Valuation of options

In order to invest for the future income, there are four levels of planning that should be considered by the investors

· Savings rate

· Tax efficiency

· Broad asset allocation across various sectors, cash, real estate, funds, bonds, etc

· Allocation by specific portfolio choices

Broadly, the personal portfolio management can be categorised into three phases including o Planning, Implementing and Controlling.

Planning

As the name suggests, this phase involves planning like any other business planning where investor has to determine his/her investment objectives and goals. It helps the investors in providing a clear vision of his goals and set of requirements. The planning also helps the investors in selecting efficient portfolio investment over others.

The determination of the investment objectives is not restricted to deciding the amount of profit one would like to make after investments. Investor should also consider about various other factors such as time and liquidity factors. Investor should also consider the amount of risk he/she can bear.

There are various possible scenarios like inflation, market economy or changes in law; that should be taken into consideration during the planning phase. Investor should realize that the returns obtained may differ from the expected risks and returns therefore all the factors that can lead to uncertainty should be taken into account.

Implementing

Once a decision is made on the basis of expected risk & return, time frame, investment objectives and other factors, other step involves the implementation of selected strategy. Investors should go for the selected securities and follows the diversification rule while implementing the investment strategy. The diversification of the securities and investment in securities helps in minimizing the losses and reduces the risk in times of financial crisis. To achieve diversification, investors can either select local market or select even the global markets.

Controlling

Investor should keep a constant check on the market to analysis and evaluating the performance of portfolio in changing conditions of the dynamic market. As an investor you should make constant modifications in your portfolio by selling overweight securities and purchasing underweight securities. It is a challenging task to make all the decisions based on the market fluctuations. With the passage of time, investor’s experience can grow and he/she can learn managing the personal portfolio with ease.

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IT Portfolio Management

IT portfolio management refers to the set of procedures that are aimed at applying systematic management to large classes of items managed by capabilities of enterprise Information Technology (IT).

Some of the activities that are performed with IT portfolio management.

· Planned initiatives and Projects

· Ongoing IT services like application support

· Quantification of previously informal IT efforts

· Enabling measurement of investment

· Objective evaluation of investment scenarios

Difference with IT financial Management

IT Portfolio Management IT portfolio management comprised of project-centric bias initially, however it evolves into including steady-state portfolio entries like application and infrastructure maintenance. Generally, the IT budgets do not track these efforts with enough granularity in order to do financial tracking effectively.

Although the concept of IT portfolio management is equivalent to financial portfolio management however there are some noteworthy differences. In case of financial portfolio, the assets have consistent measurement information that allows for making objective and accurate comparisons. However, this feature is at the base of the idea usefulness in IT applications and it takes considerable effort in the IT industry for achieving such universality of measurement.

Another major difference with IT investments is that they are not liquid such as stocks and bonds. Some of the investment portfolios may also comprise of illiquid assets. IT investments are measured by using financial as well as non-financial yardsticks such as balanced scorecard approach. In case of IT portfolio management, a pure financial view is not enough.

The assets in an IT portfolio exhibit a functional liaison to the company such as a human resources (HR) system for tracking employees’ time or inventory management system for logistics. This is equivalent to a vertically integrated company that may own retail gas stations, oil field, and refinery.

IT Portfolio management differs from IT financial management as it has an unambiguously directive, and strategic goal regarding investment rather than divestment.

How to accomplish IT Portfolio management

IT Portfolio management is achieved by creating three portfolios including Application Portfolio, Infrastructure Portfolio and Project Portfolio.

Application Portfolio – The application portfolio management focuses on comparing the spending on existing systems on the basis of their relative value to the company and level of contribution according to IT investment’s profitability.

Infrastructure Portfolio: Infrastructure management (IM) comprises of management of necessary components of any operation including data, human resources, external contacts, policies, processes, and equipment for complete effectiveness. It can be categorised into storage management, systems management and network management.

Project Portfolio: A Project Portfolio Management (PPM) refers to set of procedure or methods used for analyzing and collectively managing a group of projects (current or proposed) depending on the various key characteristics. It is widely used by project managers and project management organizations.

Advantages of IT portfolio management

There are many advantages of applying IT portfolio management for IT investments.

· Agility of portfolio management

· Central oversight of budget

· Risk management

· Strategic alignment of IT investments

· Demand and investment management

· Standardization of investment procedure

· Standardization of Rules and Plans

Implementing IT portfolio management

According to Maizlash and Handler, IT portfolio management can be implemented by using a proven step-by-step method that comprises of eight stages.

· Development of an IT portfolio management plan

· Planning of IT portfolio

· Creating the IT portfolio

· Assessment of IT portfolio

· Balancing of IT portfolio

· Communicating the IT portfolio

· Developing and growing IT portfolio governance and organization

· Assessment of IT portfolio management process execution

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Investment Portfolio Management

Investment management involves the professional management of various assets and securities including shares, bonds, commodities and other securities for meeting the particular investment goals for the advantages of the investors.

Investment Portfolio Management Examples of Investors

· Institutions

· Insurance companies

· Pension funds

· Corporations

· Charities

· Educational establishments

· private investors via investment contracts

· collective investment schemes such as mutual funds

The investment management of collective investments is also known as Asset Management. It also includes investment management for private investors and all forms of institutional investment. Investment managers who are experts in discretionary management for wealthy private investors also termed their services as wealth management or portfolio management in perspective of private banking.

Investment styles

Investment Portfolio Management involves implementation of a wide range of investment styles of fund management.

· Growth

· Value

· Growth at a reasonable price (GARP)

· Market neutral

· Small capitalisation

· Indexed

Challenges of Investment Portfolio Management

· Revenue is correlated to the market valuations directly therefore major fall in asset prices can lead to steep decline in revenues related to costs

· Difficult to sustain above-average fund performance and clients may get impatient during periods of poor performance

· Successful fund managers are high-priced and are headhunted by competitors

· Fund performance depends on the unique skills of the fund manager

· Analysts who earn above-average returns manage their personal portfolios on their own.

3 Ps of Investment Portfolio Management

· Philosophy means the beliefs of the investment organization.

· Process is the procedure for implanting the overall philosophy.

· People constitute the staff including the fund managers.

Asset Allocation

There are four common asset classes including real-estate, commodities stocks, and bonds. Investment portfolio management firms are responsible for allocating the funds among the various classes of assets and also among the individual securities within each such asset class. Asset classes demonstrate varied market dynamics, and interaction effects. The performance of the fund depends on the allocation of money among asset classes.

As per some research studies, the allocation of funds among asset classes exhibit more projecting power in determining portfolio return as compared to selecting individual holdings. The successful investment manager constructs the asset allocation and the individual holdings separately for breaking certain benchmarks.

Long-term returns

Investment portfolio management involves studying the long-term returns to different assets and analysing the holding period returns. For example, during the longer periods of time, equities may yield higher returns than bonds, and bonds may yield higher returns than cash. As per the financial theory, equities are riskier than bonds and bonds are more risky than cash.

Diversification

The degree of diversification is considered by investment portfolio managers against the asset allocation and planned holdings list is constructed. The list comprises of the details regarding what percentage of the fund is required to be invested in a specific stock or bond.

The effective diversification needs the effective management of the following factors.

· Relationship between Asset returns and the liability returns

· Issues internal to the portfolio

· Cross-correlations between the returns

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Financial Portfolio Management

Financial portfolio management refers to the management of portfolio that comprises of financial assets like stocks, bonds and cash. The financial portfolios are usually held by individual investors and managed by banks, hedge funds, financial institutions, or financial professionals.

Financial Portfolio Management The financial portfolio is designed as per the risk tolerance, investment objectives and time frame of the investors. The risk/reward ratio of the portfolio is influenced by the dollar amount of each asset. It is also known as asset allocation of the portfolio.

Financial portfolio management comprises of asset allocation and rebalancing because the investment world is very dynamic. With rapid changes taking place over time, one can see the one sector becoming less favorite than other sector and vice versa. Thus, only an agile investor can make huge profits by the stock markets around the world.

Those investors who have expertise in financial markets can side step the losses and place their portfolios for the foreseeable bull market. It allows them to maintain their portfolio even as the stock markets plunge in cruel bear markets around the world.

The active financial portfolio management can lead to wealth building by considerable overweighting and underweighting various investment sectors such as mentioned below.

· Precious Metals

· Commodities

· Cash

· Currencies

· Bond

· Real-estate

· Stock sectors

The value of the asset may rise or fall in comparison to other assets in the economy depending on various factors such as strength of the currency, inflationary or deflationary environment and economic conditions. When there is exchange of services between two persons or businesses for cash in a certain currency then person/company receiving the cash, takes an asset that can be used for procuring other assets.

Factors that lead to rise or fall of the stocks of individual companies

· General economic conditions

· Geo-political considerations

· Company performance

Assets like stocks, Bonds, commodities and others, exhibit lifecycle of rise and fall depending on the various factors as mentioned above. The value of these assets fluctuates relative to other assets with the dynamic changes taking place in the market.

Asset allocation involves investing a certain percentage of money in each of these assets over the period of time. It helps in continues building of portfolio and allows it to grow in one sector or another. The investment scenario is very dynamic while many asset allocation models are static in their approach.

The percentage of a particular sector in the portfolio will increase when it outperforms other sectors. For example, if commodities outperform stocks and other sectors than its percentage in the portfolio will increase.

In order to make good wealth and profit from the dynamic markets one has to nimble and amply overweight oneself in sector with bull market and underweight in other sectors. At a given point of time, there is usually a bull market in one sector or another. This strategy helps the investors to ride all the way up in the bull market. One should not follow the idealized asset allocation model and remain active by overweighting and underweighting in various sectors depending on the bull run and other market conditions.

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Equity Portfolio Management

The Equity Portfolio Management refers to the planning and implementation of various philosophies, methodologies, and strategies for beating the equity market. The primary objective of all investment analysis is to take investment decisions or advise others for making their own investment decisions. Thus, there exists a strong correlation between equity portfolio management and science of equity analysis.

Equity Portfolio Investment Philosophy

Equity Portfolio Investment Philosophy Professional portfolio managers follow the rigid policy with strictly defined parameters for investment management and stock selection. These portfolio managers work for an investment

management company and do not have freedom to follow general investment philosophy for governing the portfolios they manage. The portfolio managers are generally guarded by market capitalization guidelines and thus, equity portfolio management involves understanding of the investment universe for selecting the efficient investments.

Tax Sensitivity

There are many institutional equity portfolios that are not taxable like pension funds. This provides more managerial flexibility to portfolio managers as compared to taxable portfolios. These non-taxable portfolios utilize greater exposure to short-term capital gains and dividend income than their taxable counterparts.

Portfolio managers of taxable portfolios take special care of following factors.

· Stock holding periods

· Tax lots

· Capital losses

· Tax selling

· Dividend income generated by portfolios

In comparison to non-taxable portfolio, the taxable portfolios are more successful with a lower portfolio turnover rate. The portfolio management activity plays a major part in building and managing portfolios over time.

Building the Portfolio Model

Building and maintaining a portfolio model is a common aspect of equity portfolio management. It may involve running either one portfolio or many portfolios in one equity investment product. The individual portfolios are matched against a portfolio model.

Every stock in the portfolio model is assigned a percentage weighting by a Portfolio manager. It is followed by modifications of individual portfolios for matching against this weighting mix. The computerization of Portfolio models is done by using either Microsoft Excel or portfolio management software tools.

Achieving Portfolio Efficiency

An equity portfolio manager can achieve analytical efficiency by running all the portfolios in a similar way. The portfolio manager is required to have the knowledge and understanding of 30 or 40 stocks that are owned in comparable proportions in all portfolios instead of 100 or 200 stocks. The analysis of 30 or 40 stocks is easily applied to other portfolios by modifying the model weights in the portfolio model with passage of time. The dynamic market causes the rise and fall of individual stocks over time and the portfolio manager is required to change the model weightings that for reflecting the investment decision in all portfolios.

Equity portfolio management involves the portfolio modelling as an effective way for evaluating the key set of stocks to a set of portfolios in one group. It acts as an efficient link between portfolio management and equity analysis. With the rise and fall in outlook of individual stocks, the weightings of these stocks needs to be changed accordingly in the portfolio model for optimizing the return of all portfolios in the group.

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